Ap style holds that a few universally recognized abbreviations are required in some instances and some other abbreviations are acceptable depending on the context, but in general, as a writer, you should avoid having your writing appear as if it's “alphabet soup” in other words, do not use abbreviations or acronyms that. Only the common abbreviations that do not need to be defined may be used in review titles and headings without the full name needing to be written first abbreviations are acceptable in headings if they have been defined previously, though it may be preferable to rearrange the wording of headings to avoid starting with. Although probably well understood by many readers, these abbreviations should still be explained when first used examples: minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (mmpi) conditional stimulus (cs) intertrial interval (iti) consonant– vowel–consonant (cvc) short-term memory (stm) reaction time (rt) do not use. Before reading the rest of this section, ask yourself: “do i want to abbreviate or shorten a word or phrase to save keystrokes or to aid the reader” if your answer is “the reader,” you're on the right track do not use an abbreviation or acronym that your readers would not recognize quickly when in doubt, spell it out. Finally, not everything that looks like an abbreviation should be treated as one some words (eg, aids, iq, laser, radar) that began life as abbreviations are now accepted on their own merit in apa style, any abbreviation that is not labeled abbr in merriam-webster's collegiate dictionary may be used. Thankfully, you don't have to know whether something is an abbreviation, initialism, or acronym to use it properly you just have to know what the term means, and how to spell it—everything else will usually fall into place now that you know how abbreviations are formed, you may be wondering how they're pronounced. Use of and/or instead of or is acceptable when you want to emphasize either or both the forward if you must use an abbreviation, define it in parentheses the first time you use it: for example, body mass index (bmi), maximum oxygen uptake (vo2max), the fatigue dimension of the profile of mood states (poms- fatigue. Acceptable abbreviations and acronyms in general, you shouldn't abbreviate names when you design your programmatic interface (see general principles) however, the abbreviations listed below are either well established or have been used in the past, and so you may continue to use them there are.
Introduce every acronym before starting to use it to do this, put the acronym in parentheses after the full term the first time you use that term thereafter, stick to using the incorrect: let's consider the first theory, which isn't commonly accepted correct: let us. It may not be used in medication orders or other medication-related documentation development of the “do not use” list in 2001, the joint commission issued a sentinel event alert on the subject of medical abbreviations a year later, its board of commissioners approved a national patient safety goal. When discussing large numbers in text, generally do not use k/m/bn for thousand/ million/billion, but instead use the full word it is acceptable to use these abbreviations in specific situations, such as on posters, or in other places with severely constrained space please note it is acceptable to use km (kilometres) and other. Should a definite article be used before an acronym or initialism of whose expansion is used with a definite article, such as proper nouns or uk is (in my view) acceptable on its own but it seems to me odd to use one form for one abbreviation and a different form for another very similar abbreviation in the same article.
Will not signal their correct or incorrect use you need to know the correct punctuation, capitalisation and rules of use 1 shortened words most shortened forms of words are not acceptable in your formal writing there are two main types of shortened words: contractions and abbreviations you need to know about these. The use of abbreviations has gained greater acceptance as an increasing number of new products and organizations are identified by shorter and more easily because of their practical importance, the following additional units are approved for use with si , although they do not, strictly speaking, form part of it:. This is always acceptable: according to tradition, rome was founded in 753 bce: the emperor vespasian died in 79 ce all four of these abbreviations are commonly written in small capitals, and you should follow this practice if you can if you can't produce small capitals, use full-sized capitals instead all four of them are.
Q i'm editing an army paper, and they put everything in caps, which i reduce to lowercase when possible is the following okay, or do the spelled-out names get lowercased in such cases “for analysis purposes, the fatigue-avoidance scheduling tool (fast), based on the sleep, activity, fatigue, and. Typically, acronyms do not involve the use of periods after each letter in the title instead, the capitalized first letters of the words in the title appear together as one “word” when we once an acronym is defined, it should be used for all subsequent references to that term throughout the document thus, in.
Ms is not an abbreviation, either, but we do use a period after it — probably to keep it consistent with mr and mrs the plural in most formal prose, we do not use titles, abbreviated or otherwise, with individuals ms emily such abbreviations are acceptable even in formal academic text and may be used without periods.
Abbreviations used three or more times should be defined at first use however, abbreviations used only once or twice should be spelled out in full unless doing so causes the word limit to be exceeded many journals provide a list of acceptable abbreviations on their websites abbreviations that are defined in the abstract. Exactly how they should be used depends on your audience, the country you're living in (british and american conventions differ), and the particular style guide traditionally, bc comes after the year and ad comes before it, but nowadays the abbreviation commonly follows the year in both instances.
Of course there are many other abbreviations, and their use is acceptable and often preferable however, journals have varying rules for which abbreviations can be used without definition it is vital that you check the journal's guidelines for accepted abbreviations for example, some publications accept abbreviations for. It only inciden- tally covers english grammar, style, and usage to improve the quality of your writing, study this manual and any of the excellent books available that rules for abbreviating and lists of many accepted abbreviations and acronyms are given in if you do abbreviate, use a standard abbreviation rather than. In most university publications, the abbreviated title dr should not be used to indicate a person's credentials in a field many style it information technology do not use this abbreviation in general text acceptable as part of the proper name or a group or organization j jr do not set off with commas.